zaterdag 16 oktober 2010

Potential of biomass energy in Romania

Considering Romania’s topo-geographic conditions, it is estimated that Romania has a high biomass energy potential of approximately 7,594 thou toe / year (318x109 MJ/an), broken down by fuel type as follows:

•1,175 thou toe (49.8x109 MJ/year) from firewood and forest exploitation waste.
• 487 thou toe (20.4x109 MJ/year) from wood waste – sawdust and other wood waste.
• 4,799 thou toe (200.9x109 MJ/year) from agricultural waste (cereal waste, vine waste, etc.).
• 588 thou toe (24.6x109 MJ/an) from biogas.
• 545 thou toe (22.8x109MJ/an) from household waste in urban areas.
Our map outlines Romania’s biomass potential, actual biomass consumption and number of inhabitants, by county.

Approximately 54% of biomass based thermal energy production in Romania is generated by forest exploitation waste burning, whereas 89% of thermal energy used for heating and food preparation in rural areas results from consumption of vegetal waste.

The current biomass consumption includes several types of fuels with the following destinations:

•Around 550 industrial steam and hot water boilers for industrial heating (wood based fuel).
•Approximately 10 hot water boilers of 0.7 MW and 7.0 MW installed power (comprising an overall 45MW installed power) for urban heating (wood waste based fuel).
•Approximately 14 million stoves or wood / agricultural waste ovens for heating individual dwellings or preparation of food.
Several projects have been implemented, in order to encourage using biomass instead of conventional fuels, such as:

• “Support for the implementation of renewable energy sources” project developed between years 1998 and 1999 and financed through Phare - EU program. The objective of the project was to underline the replacement value of fossil fuels with biomass in thermal energy production.
• The “Sawdust 2000” program, which was based on the agreement between The Romanian Ministry of Waters and Environment Protection and the Denmark Kingdom’s Ministry of the Environment. The objective of the project was reducing the level of uncontrolled sawdust deposits and other wood waste, thus diminishing the impact of wood processing on the environment. The project was financed by the local authorities of the 5 cities where the project was implemented, through the PHARE program (The European Community Fund for Economic and Social Cohesion), through The Special Fund for Energy Development and through the Danish Government.
Generally speaking, projects for biomass exploitation are very attractive due to the lower price of thermal energy obtained this way as compared to that of energy obtained from fossil fuels. However, Romania’s biomass consumption has decreased over the past 10 years, due to the extension of natural gas and LPG distribution networks and consumption.

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